Monday, April 25, 2011

A Cursory Overview of the Middle Ages II

Last week, I did a post on the Middle Ages in Europe. Here are the main events of the Middle Ages (400–1500) in the UK and Ireland.

Early Middle Ages

Early 400s: Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invade England.
430: Saint Patrick's Irish mission begins.
490: Victory for Celtic Welsh and Britons in Battle of Mons Badonicus against Anglo-Saxons.
563: Saint Columba founds mission in Iona.
577: The West Saxons continue their advance at the Battle of Deorham against the Britons.
597: Christianisation of the Anglo-Saxons begins with the arrival of St. Augustine in Kent.
663: Synod of Whitby. Roman Christianity triumphs over Celtic Christianity in England.
672: Birth of Venerable Bede known as the Father of English History.
685: Battle of Nechtansmere. Picts defeat Northumbrians, whose dominance in Scotland ends.
731: Bede writes his famous The Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
793: Holy Island of Lindisfarne is sacked. Viking attacks on Britain begin.
795: Death of Offa marks the end of Mercian dominance in England.
825: Battle of Ellandun. Egbert defeats Mercians. Wessex becomes the leading kingdom of England.
840: Kenneth McAlpin becomes king of the Picts and Scots, creating the Kingdom of Alba.
871: Alfred the Great assumes the throne, the first king of a united England.
897: Death of Alfred the Great.
910: Edward the Elder, son of Alfred, defeats the Northumbrian vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall.
1022: Harold II the last Anglo-Saxon King of England is born.

High Middle Ages

1066: In the Battle of Hastings, the Normans are victorious over the Anglo-Saxons. The Duke of Normandy become William the Conqueror of England.
1073: Tower of London is built.
1086: Compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey, is begun.
1099: First Crusade.
1106: Henry I becomes of England.
1107 Through the Compromise of 1107, the Investiture Struggle between the English monarchy and the Catholic Church is ended.
1117: The University of Oxford is founded.
1118: The Knights Templar are founded.
1147: Second Crusade.
1152 The Synod of Kells-Mellifont established the present diocesan system of Ireland and recognized the primacy of Armagh.
1171: King Henry II of England lands in Ireland to assert his supremacy and the Synod of Cashel acknowledges his sovereignty.
1174: King William I of Scotland is captured in the Battle of Alnwick by the English.
1188: Richard I ascends the throne of England.
1189: Third Crusade.
1199: The reign of King John.
1200: Fourth Crusade embarks.
1209: The University of Cambridge is founded.
1215: Magna Carta is signed by John.
1241: The Welsh Prince Gruffydd is imprisoned and falls to his death in a bid to escape.
1257: Provisions of Oxford, England's first written constitution, is forced upon Henry III of England.
1263: The Barons War led by Simon de Montfort force the king to submit to government by council leading to the formation of the English Parliament. 1272: The reign of King Edward I (son of Henry III) 1274: Thomas Aquinas' work, Summa Theologiae is published. 1296: Edward the Confessor of England invades Scotland, starting the First War of Scottish Independence.
1297: William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance.

Late Middle Ages

1307: Murder of the The Knights Templar.
1311: The Great Famine begins.
1314: Robert the Bruce restores Scotland's de facto independence at the Battle of Bannockburn.
1324: Roger Mortimer, the first Earl of March, leads the barons in a rebellion against King Edward II.
1327: The king was forced to abdicate in favour of his young son, Edward III whom Mortimer helped to bring in power.
1328: The First War of Scottish Independence ends in Scottish victory with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton and de jure independence.
1330: When King Edward III came of age, he executed Roger Mortimer.
1337: The Hundred Years War begins. England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe.
1348: The Black Death kills nearly a third of the population. London's population is halved.
1377: The reign of King Richard II (grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Prince)
1380: Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, begins to write The Canterbury Tales.
1381: Peasants' Revolt in England instigated by a new poll tax.
1381: The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe.
1399: John of Gaunt dies and King Richard seizes his lands. Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke invades England, become King Henry IV, and condemns Richard II as a tyrant. 1415: Battle of Agincourt. Henry V and his army defeat a numerically superior French army, partially because of the newly-introduced English longbow.
1453: The Hundred Years War ends. Calais is the only English possession on Continental Europe 1455: The Wars of the Roses begins in England between the Lancastrians and Yorkists. 1461: Edward IV becomes king. 1482: William Caxton sets up a printing press in Westminster
1483: Richard III becomes king. 1485: Thomas Malory composes Le Morte d'Arthur. So end the Middle Ages.